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Despite all odds, the ‘digital menace’ resolved into a ‘digital opportunity’ favoring the diffusion of literature. According with wiser predictions (Carrière – Eco 2009), the rise of new media paradoxically fostered the popularity of the the book as a medium, of literature as a crucial communication system, and even more slightly the predominance of the novel as a genre. Calvino (1988) was right indeed when predicting that he trusted in literature and its ability to last through the current millennium, because its specific bag of tools make it possible to do things which are otherwise undoable.
Far from having been threatened, not to mention killed, by web culture and new media, literature seems to be in pretty good shape. Actually, literature played an essential part in the development of groundbreaking commercial web based services such as Amazon, which was originally introduced as a telematic bookshop. Moreover, very crowded second generation web-based communities, such as aNobii, LibraryThing, or Goodreads, are actually based on literature as the main interest shared by thousand of enthusiastic readers from everywhere in the world.
Interestingly, literary systems emerging from digital shelves of socially networked bookworms look like Taleb’s ‘Estremistan’, that is as a winner-takes-(almost)-all cultural environment (Taleb 2007: 30) in which the novel definitely plays an hegemonic role (Fuksas 2008). So, the rise of digital media did not impacted dramatically neither the popularity of literature, nor the predominance of the novel, that is emerging more and more as a global standard for storytelling.
Deep in the middle of the so-called digital era visitors of bookshops such as Barnes and Noble in DC, FNAC in Paris or Feltrinelli in Rome still find themselves surrounded by novels and they keep buying them. Many of them purchase or illegally download thousand of epub and mobi novels which they collect in their ipad and kindle tablets. Matter-of-factly, the novel is playing a dramatic role in the survival of literature across the digital age, as it did through the modern era, characterized by the rise of powerful media such as radio, cinema and television.
The present investigation aims at suggesting that the novel is so powerful and sticky because it is a “Genere Mondo” implying a collaborative interaction between all the literary products which belong to the genre. The very concept of Genere Mondo paraphrases Franco Moretti’s idea of “Opera Mondo”, applying to modern epic literary works which aim at incorporating the entire world into their textual format. An Opera Mondo aims at digesting and outclassing previous literary tradition rather than complementi it, that is at trespassing the boundaries of a specific genre, or the very notion of genre itself, rather than implementing it.
For instance, Dante’s Commedia is “comedy”, as the title suggests, an original verse narrative whose textual format is carefully designed so as to differ from a traditional novel. The octosyllabe (8sill) is replaced by the endecasillabo (10’sill), and the couplet by the terzina, adding 3 syllables ro each verse and 1 verse to any pattern metric unit.
Hence, the Commedia is an un-novelistic literary work whose textual format implicitly exceeds the boundaries of the novel, as its themes and subjects do.
The “Opera Mondo” typically aims at setting itself apart from the esthetics which implicitly substantiate traditional literary genres. A clear morphologic statement gives birth to a literary work which will be eventually celebrated as an original masterpiece, but will hardly emerge as a role-model. The “Opera Mondo” is typically unprecedented and unsurpassed because it is a league of its own, unparalleled and beyond compare, aberrant and superlative at the very same time: a wonder and freak.
Since an “Opera Mondo” will be hardly taken as a model, being intrinsically impossible to emulate, it won’t define the borders of a new literary genre. Sometimes authors are consciously operating so as to produce an inimitable “Opera Mondo”. In other cases such an outcome depends on the degeneration of a literary work which was originally planned to fit the current literary system but accidentally transcended its limits.
Unlike literary works ranging into such a very uncommon category, novels are intrinsically conceived as parts of a greater, collaborative system. Essentially, the writing of a novel entails the implicit reference to other literary works of a similar kind. In such terms, novels complement each other, providing readers with descriptions of characters, facts and events which give for granted and fit into a novelistic system.
Accordingly, new novels typically tell new stories featuring new characters and/or adding significant elements to existing ones by directly or indirectly interacting with them. Their original subject fits a perpetually growing system which aims at incorporating the entire human experience into the aesthetic borders of a “Genere Mondo”.
Medieval verse novels, the avatar of the genre, tell the story of famous knights, featuring minor characters who often emerge as the protagonists of new literary works. Since the medieval origins of the genre individual novels are complementing each other as part of a potentially exhaustive system which aims at incorporating the entire world into its perpetually expanding borders. This propensity to exhaustiveness is pragmatic and accumulative instead of encyclopedic and systematic and collaborative rather than solipsistic.
Based on these premises, it has been possible for modern novelists to eventually broaden the field of such an inclusive system, that is to introduce new classes of characters, such as picaros and tormented intellectuals, femmes savantes and clever detectives. The intrinsic tendency to work as an organic system might be the reason why the novel evolved into the prominent genre in western literatures and eventually in World Literature as well. This claim will be supported by an investigation concerning medieval recollection of verse novels in organic macro-narratives supported by properly “novelistic” manuscripts.
Previous studies had already shown that some medieval manuscripts provide organic recollections of verse romance novels which contemplate individual works as parts of an integrate narrative system. Essentially, novels fit into books which partially approximate the modern organic idea of a literary genre. Indeed, not only these manuscripts just include similar works belonging to the very same kind, but also they range them in a peculiar order, which reflects the idea of a macro-narrative.
The selection of the contents typically shows a peculiar rationale, the overlapping of subjects and topics being rare and occasional. Manuscripts just devoted to a single novel are not so common, and equally rare are those in which novels coexist with literary works of other kinds. Accordingly, the manuscript tradition of the verse romance novel approximates the idea of an integrate and potentially independent literary genre.
Azzam, W. – Collet, O. – Foer Janssens, Y. 2005
Les manuscrits littéraires français: Pour une sémiotique du
recueil médiéval, in «Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire» (Langues et littératures modernes – Moderne taal en litterkunde) 83, 3, pp. 639-669.
Busby, K. 2007
Post-Chrétien Verse Romance. The Manuscript Context, in «Cahiers de Recherches Médiévales et Humanistes», 14, pp. 11-24.
Busby, K. 2002
Codex and Context. Reading Old French Verse Narrative in Manuscript, Amsterdam-New York, Rodopi.
Calvino, I. 1988
Six Memos for the Next Millennium, Cambridge (MA), Harvard University Press, 1988.
Carrière, J. C. – Eco, U. 2009
N’espérez pas vous débarrasser des livres, Paris, Grasset (italian translation: Non sperate di liberarvi dei libri, Milano, Bompiani).
Gingras, F. 2007
Roman contre roman dans l’organisation du manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725, in «Babel» 16, pp. 61-80.
Kelly, D. 2006
Arthurian Verse Romance in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, chapter X of The Arthur of the French. The Arthurian Legend in Medieval French and Occitan Literature, ed. by G. Burgess and K. Pratt, Cardiff, The University of Wales Press, pp. 393-460.
Middleton, R. 2006
The manuscripts, chapter I of The Arthur of the French, ed. by G. Burgess and K. Pratt, Cardiff, The University of Wales Press, pp. 8-92.
Moretti, F. 1994
Opere mondo: saggio sulla forma epica dal Faust a Cent’anni di solitudine, Torino, Einaudi.
Nixon, T. 1993
Romance Collections and the Manuscripts of Chrétien de Troyes, in Les Manuscripts de Chrétien de Troyes, ed. by K. Busby – T. Nixon – A. Stones – L. Walters, Amsterdam, Rodopi, I, pp. 17-25.
Catalogue of Manuscripts, in Les Manuscripts de Chrétien de Troyes, ed. by K. Busby – T. Nixon – A. Stones – L. Walters, Amsterdam, Rodopi, II, pp. 1-85.
Trachsler, R. 1994
Le recueil Paris, BN fr. 12603, in «Cultura Neolatina», 54, pp. 189–211.
Walters, L. 2006
Manuscript Compilations of Verse Romances, c. XI of The Arthur of the French. The Arthurian Legend in Medieval French and Occitan Literature, ed. by G. Burgess and K. Pratt, Cardiff, The University of Wales Press, pp. 461-487.
Walters, L. 1985
Le Rôle du scribe dans l’organisation des manuscrits des romans de Chrétien de Troyes, in «Romania», 106, pp. 303-25.
Walters, L. 1991
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, fonds français, MS 1433: The Creation of a Super Romance, «The Arthurian Yearbook», 1, pp. 3-25.
Walters, L. 2006
The Formation of a Gauvain Cycle in Chantilly MS 472, in «Neophilologus», 78 (1994), pp. 29-43 (then in Gawain: A Casebook, ed. by R. H. Thompson and K Busby, New York-London, Routledge (Arthurian Characters and Themes), p. 157-172.
Walters, L. 1994
Chantilly MS 472 as a Cyclic Work, in Cyclification: The Development of Narrative Cycles in the Chansons de Geste and the Arthurian Romances, ed. by B. Besamusca et al., Amsterdam, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, pp. 135-39.
Since the Karl Lachmann’s edition of De rerum naturis, through Paul Maas Textkritik and further into Lachmannian method inquiries and critical assessments, The Method states that the critical edition of a given text imply the previously acquired knowledge of every source defining the extent of the textual tradition concerning the literary work that is about to be published, say a poem, a novel, as written documents of any kinds. Any lack of knowledge may imply missing of given lectiones singulares or shared erroneous ones causing an incorrect evaluation of the relations connecting the various textual sources. That’s why any lachmannian textual reconstruction process involves a special feature called recensio, aimed to collect any known, and possibly some still unknown, source of the text about to be published. In lachmannian terms, any edition based on a limited evaluation of the textual tradition simply can’t be be considered critical at all. Since the editor has to check and collate all the sources of the literary work he is about to publish, the recensio represents a primary issue of the critical process. So primary he hardly wonders what he is actually doing while he is collecting his sources.
Basically, the recensio is conceived and practiced as a very simple activity, based on the consultation of catalogues and a more accurate direct evaluation of the items most suitable to be taken into account as sources of the poem, the romance or epic narrative or whatever the editor is about to study and publish. It looks like such an empirical process actually relies on the «family resemblances» described by Wittgenstein in his Philosophische Untersuchungen. In facts, the editor applying to recensio is absolutely committed to the identification of similarities. This commitment drives to the recollection of similar objects which have «something in common», in terms that they have some parts in common. As Wittgenstein could have eventually said in such a case, the editor “feels” the similarity, he could easily “show” it, explaining that: “here it is, can’t you see it? It’s similar!”. Empirical approaches as the one suggested by such an utterance are the ones which editors actually assume while working on the critical edition of ancient and medieval literary works, say poems or narratives of various kind. Indeed, editors categorize sources as individuals belonging to the same family without even wondering how similar two or more texts have to be to be considered different versions of the same poem, novel, whatever and what is the symbolic level the “quest for similarity” applies to.
In general, similarities are scaled on the various symbolic layers of the textual encoding. Sentence-length or more extensive and consistent parts shared by two or more sources, as shared special words, like proper or geographical nouns, can trigger some valuable analogies. Even metrics and other non-linguistic textual features, as the editorial layout of medieval manuscripts, may be taken into account as control conditions, even though different sources will be never classified as exemplars of the same tradition just because they are copied on similar books or they just share a metrical pattern, as it happens so often, for example, in middle-age Provençal, French, Italian love lyrics. In general, two or more different documents are considered as belonging to the same textual tradition if and only if they share similarities in respect to parts and/or individual special clues and markers that are pretty uncommon into other items carried by the catalogs. The minimum scaling is generally set on the sentence-length similarity, but the very meaningful matches usually involve the sharing of more extensive parts, as phrases and, of course, phrase-sequences.
This bottom-up approach, based on analogy and induction, fits pretty well the basic needs of an editor, as soon as he tries to establish the full set of sources that have to be taken into account for collatio, the process leading to the identification of common errors. At the same time, the complete lack of any deeper theoretical insight causes the editor to bypass a very crucial issue, that is a tragic, huge aporia. Indeed, the critical edition of a given literary work is aimed to investigate the textual tradition in order to attain the archetypal configuration.
Besides, the recensio is supposed to identify the sources a given literary work in order to define the extent of its textual tradition, setting up the critical investigation of the archetypal text. Before manuscripts are connected into a stemma codicum, before errors are found, even before sources are simply collated, a stable configuration of the text arises leading the editor throughout the most crucial part of his work, the recollection of sources by means of similarity-pattern recognition. Basically, while collecting his sources, the editor develops a full representation of an exemplar, that is a “control text” he relies on, he worships, when it comes to check for similarities.
This huge aporia, embedded into the basics of the lachmannian method, evidences an epistemological dilemma, a too big and complex one to be solved into the disciplinary boundaries of Textkritik. That is probably why the state-of-the art on this crucial topic is a blank slate. Neither the most analytical approach to Textkritik provides appreciable hints on the subject, probably because philology can’t answer questions as: how can an editor look for something he still does not know what it really is? Or, what is he looking for when he starts his recensio of the sources that may actually be referred to the “same” literary work? How does he assesses two different documents as sources of the same literary work? Why doesn’t he simply classify them as different ones? What is the special feature triggering the process of pattern recognition that leads to the identification of some sources as “same” and others as “not same”? Where does the editor sets the «upper» limit of the simple quotation, and where does he set the «lower» one leading to the recognition of a stand-alone literary feature, substantially independent from the rest of the textual tradition he is actually inquiring? Brief, if he hasn’t still proceeded to collatio, error recognition, elaboration of the family tree, what is he comparing to what? What does he categorize as a text? And finally, what a text basically is?
A correct answer to this set of questions requires a different approach to the text, to be regarded as a plastic feature, that may be described both as the individual and the family it belongs to, that is as a category and, at the same time, as an object to be categorized into.
(to be continued)
Novels are typically addressed as literary, cultural, eventually cognitive products, the amount of an artifact that has been created by someone or some process. Accordingly, they are commonly conceived as stories embedded into texts embedded into books. The three levels are usually considered as different features referred to the same object. For being a novel, a story has to be encoded through the set of symbolical features defining its textual layout. For being a text, the encoding has to be based on symbols engraved on a surface able to preserve it as an object: typically (and “lately”) paper. Consequently, a novel can’t be a novel without literacy and, as far as western literature is concerned, a novel can’t even be a novel out of a book containing it.
Besides, books are a very late feature in human cultures. Homo Sapiens Sapiens shaped narratives without books, even without literacy for the 99.99999% of his evolutionary history. Still, literary criticism can hardly figure out novels without books. Indeed, the process of ‘creating’ a novel and the one of ‘writing’ a novel are basically the same thing in common understanding. In many western languages the word “to write” counts as a synonym of “to create, to produce”, as far as the novel is the intended object the verbs refer to. Likewise, in many western languages words as “book” and “novel” count as synonyms.
There is historical evidence of the fact that the rise of the book as a medium and the rise of the novel as a literary genre fairly developed at the same pace, from papyrus age through parchment, till paper and print. That’s probably why the Digital Age questions at the same time the book as a medium and the novel as a genre. However, the historical and the theoretical extent of the questions both could be, and often they are, easily overrated, not to say generally mistaken, in absence of a previous, critical discussion taking into account unquestionable hystorical data.
Indeed, unquestionable evidence support the view that the same story, say the one about the unlucky love between Tristan and Ysolt, can be told by different narratives, say novels as the ones by Thomas, Beroul and, very likely, Chrétien de Troyes himself. Moreover, various versions of the same novel are affected by massive textual variation through the extent of their manuscript tradition. Similar evidence, concerning both fully different events taking place in different versions of the same story and the same events encoded through different textual features, apply to the medieval tradition of the Roman d’Alexandre, since four previous versions seem to have been collected by Alixandre de Paris into a single novel. Amazingly compelling evidence is provided by the textual tradition of the prose Lancelot-Graal cycle, featuring more than 200 different manuscript versions.
More in general, medieval manuscript traditions of early french romance novels from the 12th and the 13th century provide a wide range of textual variation, from simple graphical encoding, through the breakdown of narrative sequences, to the plastic assembly of episodes or even entire novels into new different ones. Basically, there is unquestionable evidence that variation is an unavoidable side-effect of manuscript copy or editing, due to the fact that the text is just the temporary-solid symbolic configuration the plastic non-symbolic flow of the story is shaped through. The textual borders can not be thick enough to avoid the narrative flow to outstrip them, hence the novel, as any chapter paragraph or other possible part it can be divided into, always exceeds the text it is encoded into. Very likely, textual variation depends on the mismatch between the story and the text it is encoded into, defining the extent of the decoding and recoding of a story. Indeed, since editors are human being, their eyes reading the exemplar are connected to their hands writing the copy on the blank page by means of a brain at work.
The philosophical investigations of J. R. Searle (1980 and 1990) recommend not to describe the mind as a mechanical processing informations device applying a set of algorithms and rules to some given symbolic code. As Searle pointed out with his chinese room argument and further insights, information-theory based accounts of the human mind operative patterns are utterly paradoxical. According to Searle’s philosophical point of view, neuroscientists are showing ever growing and pretty unquestionable evidences that the brain is not an instructions-driven engine, working as a Turing machine or as any other problem-solving mechanical device. Accordingly, the processes involved into manuscript textual transmission can not assume the editor’s brain as a mechanical device aimed to reproduce the text the way the exemplar provides him with. That’s why formalist, structuralist, semiotic and cognitive approaches failed to show any consistency at all, while looking for primary components of stories on the basis of the textual features they are supposed to be encoded into (Fuksas 2002).
Of course, the encoding process of stories into texts, the creative writing of an author on a blank page as the editing of a written one by an editor or the author himself imply the adoption of a symbolic code. Since stories have to be narrated, symbolic encoding has to be credited as an essential feature. Moreover, the symbolic encoding of a story is pragmatically limited, in terms that it implies at least one possible, accepted, placeable, recognizable textual configuration. At the same time, given that there is not any code before the encoding has been processed, being the code the result of the process, how can the textual encoding, or any other symbolic feature, be addressed as a crucial feature of the story itself? Moreover, how can the encoding process of a story into a text be described as a sort of translation?
Matter-of-factly, readers or listeners do not need to memorize phrases, sentences, words to understand a story. They hardly succeed in the task of retelling a single sentence of given narratives they read or listen to, even though they can retell what the story is about in different words, sentences, phrases. Very likely, if asked to retell a single narrative event extracted from a story, both listeners or readers would completely shuffle and replace most of the words, not to mention verbal tenses and conjugation modes.
Iser’s Wirkungstheorie investigated the aesthetic response triggered by the act of reading as the interaction, that is the dialectic relationship between text and reader. According to Iser (1972), the reading of the text «brings into play the imaginative and perceptive faculties of the reader, in order to make him adjust and even differentiate his own focus». Hence, even though the study of the literature arises from our concern with texts, there can be no denying in the importance of what happens to readers through texts. The point is, what happens to them?
Gibson’s Theory of Affordances and recent neuroscientific evidences concerning mirror neurons suggest that the decoding of narrative actions very likely induce motor facilitation, triggering action potential as the planning, the observation or the the auditory clues associated to corresponding actual actions do. Acts as ‘reading a novel’ or ‘listening to a story’ very likely trigger action potential entailed by textual descriptions. That is, textual decoding of narratives may very likely lead to the actual embodiment of described perceptual events, actions and emotional correlates by means of resonance and mirror matching of corresponding sensory experiences, motor schemes and interoceptive ramifications.
Brief, according to an ecological approach to storytelling described events entailing perception, action and emotional correlates are embodied via mirror matching, that is processed according to corresponding percepual, motor and emotional patterns.
Since embodiment of stories has to be credited as the very crucial feature making it possible the processing and the understanding of narratives, the symbolic encoding of narratives into actual texts has to be addressed as an emergent feature. Accordingly, a given text can be defined as a sequence of symbols encoding a story, but can not be identified with the story itself, any story being potentially encoded into infinite texts. Being possible to encode the ‘same’ story through potentially infinite symbolic assets, none of them can be identified with the story itself, at least not as the only way to tell the ‘same’ story. Indeed, perceptual events, actions and emotions decoded from novels, stories, narratives in general by means of mirror matching, are saved and stored as sensory experiences, motor schemes, feelings and behaviors into isolated or combined complex patterns, outlasting the textual features they are symbolically encoded into, that are soon gone and forgotten.
«Natural conditions» still applied to medieval manuscript tradition given that between the eyes reading the exemplar and the hand writing the copy the brain was still able to process variation on a scribal, editorial basis. Indeed, medieval manuscript tradition of French romance novels shows unquestionable evidence of massive variation when it comes to the breakdown of episodes, narrative sequences and smaller units as paragraph markers. Accomplishing the process of editing a novel, the very same novel, if “same” is the right word, different editors provide different breakdowns of the the story, the very same story, if, still, “same” is the right word. Basically, no middle-age manuscript tradition of any given early romance novel shows a recurrent breakdown pattern of the narrative parts. Any given version of the “same” romance novel actually provides his own breakdown of paragraphs, sections, chapter borders.
Moving deep forward the literary history of the novel to the Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit one could easily account narrative sections, chapters, episodes, paragraphs, as meaningful defined and fixed units. Indeed, printing made it possible to reproduce the standard breakdown of the novel into potentially infinite copies. Of course, different editions eventually revise the original partitioning of the novel, sometimes the author himself changes his mind, sometimes an editor takes part into a revision. Still, as soon as the matrix is established, copies reflects the very same standardized breakdown of the story in chapters, episodes, paragraphs, any kind of sections or parts.
Classical works by Watt e Goody (1968 ), Goody (1977: ix and passim, 1987) e Ong (1982: 78 ) identified textual consistency as a peculiar feature of literacy. R. H. Finnegan (1988: 17 e 82 in part.) suggested a different approach, observing that «even in litterate cultures there are many differences of degree in the respect accorded to a fixed text». Indeed, «it is possible indeed that we should regard printing rather than writing in itself as the most important factor here». If a threshold factor may be identified, distinguishing textual consistency of a story as a pure aim or an actual feature «it is between societies with and without printing, rather than with or without writing».
Accordingly, printing subverts the ecology of the novel making it possible to reproduce a standard format basically packing into the very same unit the story, the text and the novel. In ‘natural conditions’, that is before printing, the processing of the novel is dynamic and stochastic. The purpose of reproducing on an “high fidelity” standard, possibly “maximum, absolute fidelity”, should be considered as very exceptional, that is as the degré zero of manuscript textual reproduction. Hence, technologies underlaying reproduction have to be credited for the fixed textual encoding of the novel.
Still , textual processing of stories, both while listening to spoken aloud narratives, and very likely even while reading a written text, relies on plastic decoding of the symbolic code leading to the embodiment of corresponding perceptual events, actions and emotional correlates via mirror matching. Hence, the Novel stops being a defined product, an artifact working as an instructional system any time a reader or a listener start decoding the text so to embody the encoded story. In that very moment the novel starts acting as a plastic organism, a system providing a set of perceptual events, actions and emotional correlates. When the very same ecological interaction involves an editor, it very likely mutates the novel into something new, since the recoding of decoded events entailing perception, action and emotion very likely depends on the selection of new options among the potentially available “fit enough” ones.
That’s why ruling variation out of the general plan, typical histories of the literature basically rely on premises that are the very literary equivalent of the assumption that god created all the living species on earth. Indeed, novels as modern criticism is used to conceive them, basically as single objects identified by the boundaries of given texts, embodied into books and secured by the borders of their covers, are just the result of cultural or social selection operated by authors, editors, scribes, printers. Paradoxically, in ‘natural conditions’ the modern definition of “novel” applies both to the individual versions and/or to the family they belong to, that is it may be regarded at the same time as an item and/or as a category including that very same item.
Since the relationship between stories and texts is nonhierarchical, the novel basically results in an emerging feature arising from an asymmetric process of critical encoding.
That’s why, semiotic theories of reference, as the ones based on intertextuality (Kristeva 1966), should be finally discarded once and forever in favor of a new ecological approach to intersubjectivity, entailing embodiment of narrative references as a crucial feature. Indeed, texts can no be just addressed as mosaics of quotations, that is as parts of a larger mosaic of texts, given that textual features counts as meaningful units just in terms they can be plastically embodied into corresponding perceptual schemes, activity patterns and related interoceptive ramifications, as emotions and feelings.
Moreover, an evolutionary approach to the novel should necessarily investigate ‘textual fossils’, so to figure out the way cultural and social selection shaped the World Literature the way it looks like. Indeed, a philological approach make it possible to avoid literary determinism, the full equivalent of creationism in natural sciences.
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The domestication of the savage mind, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
The logic of writing and the organization of society, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Goody, J. – Watt, I.
The consequences of litteracy, in Litteracy in Traditional Societies, a c. di. J. Goody, London, Cambridge University Press.
Iser, W. 1976
Der Akt des Lesens. Theorie asthetischer Wirkung, Munchen, W. Fink (then Id., The Act of Reading. A Theory of Aesthetic Response, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 1978 ).
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Séméiôtiké: recherches pour une sémanalyse, Paris: Edition du Seuil.
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Orality and Litteracy: the Technologizing of the World, London – New York, Methuen.
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