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Monthly Archives: April 2013
Despite all odds, the ‘digital menace’ resolved into a ‘digital opportunity’ favoring the diffusion of literature. According with wiser predictions (Carrière – Eco 2009), the rise of new media paradoxically fostered the popularity of the the book as a medium, of literature as a crucial communication system, and even more slightly the predominance of the novel as a genre. Calvino (1988) was right indeed when predicting that he trusted in literature and its ability to last through the current millennium, because its specific bag of tools make it possible to do things which are otherwise undoable.
Far from having been threatened, not to mention killed, by web culture and new media, literature seems to be in pretty good shape. Actually, literature played an essential part in the development of groundbreaking commercial web based services such as Amazon, which was originally introduced as a telematic bookshop. Moreover, very crowded second generation web-based communities, such as aNobii, LibraryThing, or Goodreads, are actually based on literature as the main interest shared by thousand of enthusiastic readers from everywhere in the world.
Interestingly, literary systems emerging from digital shelves of socially networked bookworms look like Taleb’s ‘Estremistan’, that is as a winner-takes-(almost)-all cultural environment (Taleb 2007: 30) in which the novel definitely plays an hegemonic role (Fuksas 2008). So, the rise of digital media did not impacted dramatically neither the popularity of literature, nor the predominance of the novel, that is emerging more and more as a global standard for storytelling.
Deep in the middle of the so-called digital era visitors of bookshops such as Barnes and Noble in DC, FNAC in Paris or Feltrinelli in Rome still find themselves surrounded by novels and they keep buying them. Many of them purchase or illegally download thousand of epub and mobi novels which they collect in their ipad and kindle tablets. Matter-of-factly, the novel is playing a dramatic role in the survival of literature across the digital age, as it did through the modern era, characterized by the rise of powerful media such as radio, cinema and television.
The present investigation aims at suggesting that the novel is so powerful and sticky because it is a “Genere Mondo” implying a collaborative interaction between all the literary products which belong to the genre. The very concept of Genere Mondo paraphrases Franco Moretti’s idea of “Opera Mondo”, applying to modern epic literary works which aim at incorporating the entire world into their textual format. An Opera Mondo aims at digesting and outclassing previous literary tradition rather than complementi it, that is at trespassing the boundaries of a specific genre, or the very notion of genre itself, rather than implementing it.
For instance, Dante’s Commedia is “comedy”, as the title suggests, an original verse narrative whose textual format is carefully designed so as to differ from a traditional novel. The octosyllabe (8sill) is replaced by the endecasillabo (10’sill), and the couplet by the terzina, adding 3 syllables ro each verse and 1 verse to any pattern metric unit.
Hence, the Commedia is an un-novelistic literary work whose textual format implicitly exceeds the boundaries of the novel, as its themes and subjects do.
The “Opera Mondo” typically aims at setting itself apart from the esthetics which implicitly substantiate traditional literary genres. A clear morphologic statement gives birth to a literary work which will be eventually celebrated as an original masterpiece, but will hardly emerge as a role-model. The “Opera Mondo” is typically unprecedented and unsurpassed because it is a league of its own, unparalleled and beyond compare, aberrant and superlative at the very same time: a wonder and freak.
Since an “Opera Mondo” will be hardly taken as a model, being intrinsically impossible to emulate, it won’t define the borders of a new literary genre. Sometimes authors are consciously operating so as to produce an inimitable “Opera Mondo”. In other cases such an outcome depends on the degeneration of a literary work which was originally planned to fit the current literary system but accidentally transcended its limits.
Unlike literary works ranging into such a very uncommon category, novels are intrinsically conceived as parts of a greater, collaborative system. Essentially, the writing of a novel entails the implicit reference to other literary works of a similar kind. In such terms, novels complement each other, providing readers with descriptions of characters, facts and events which give for granted and fit into a novelistic system.
Accordingly, new novels typically tell new stories featuring new characters and/or adding significant elements to existing ones by directly or indirectly interacting with them. Their original subject fits a perpetually growing system which aims at incorporating the entire human experience into the aesthetic borders of a “Genere Mondo”.
Medieval verse novels, the avatar of the genre, tell the story of famous knights, featuring minor characters who often emerge as the protagonists of new literary works. Since the medieval origins of the genre individual novels are complementing each other as part of a potentially exhaustive system which aims at incorporating the entire world into its perpetually expanding borders. This propensity to exhaustiveness is pragmatic and accumulative instead of encyclopedic and systematic and collaborative rather than solipsistic.
Based on these premises, it has been possible for modern novelists to eventually broaden the field of such an inclusive system, that is to introduce new classes of characters, such as picaros and tormented intellectuals, femmes savantes and clever detectives. The intrinsic tendency to work as an organic system might be the reason why the novel evolved into the prominent genre in western literatures and eventually in World Literature as well. This claim will be supported by an investigation concerning medieval recollection of verse novels in organic macro-narratives supported by properly “novelistic” manuscripts.
Previous studies had already shown that some medieval manuscripts provide organic recollections of verse romance novels which contemplate individual works as parts of an integrate narrative system. Essentially, novels fit into books which partially approximate the modern organic idea of a literary genre. Indeed, not only these manuscripts just include similar works belonging to the very same kind, but also they range them in a peculiar order, which reflects the idea of a macro-narrative.
The selection of the contents typically shows a peculiar rationale, the overlapping of subjects and topics being rare and occasional. Manuscripts just devoted to a single novel are not so common, and equally rare are those in which novels coexist with literary works of other kinds. Accordingly, the manuscript tradition of the verse romance novel approximates the idea of an integrate and potentially independent literary genre.
Azzam, W. – Collet, O. – Foer Janssens, Y. 2005
Les manuscrits littéraires français: Pour une sémiotique du
recueil médiéval, in «Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire» (Langues et littératures modernes – Moderne taal en litterkunde) 83, 3, pp. 639-669.
Busby, K. 2007
Post-Chrétien Verse Romance. The Manuscript Context, in «Cahiers de Recherches Médiévales et Humanistes», 14, pp. 11-24.
Busby, K. 2002
Codex and Context. Reading Old French Verse Narrative in Manuscript, Amsterdam-New York, Rodopi.
Calvino, I. 1988
Six Memos for the Next Millennium, Cambridge (MA), Harvard University Press, 1988.
Carrière, J. C. – Eco, U. 2009
N’espérez pas vous débarrasser des livres, Paris, Grasset (italian translation: Non sperate di liberarvi dei libri, Milano, Bompiani).
Gingras, F. 2007
Roman contre roman dans l’organisation du manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725, in «Babel» 16, pp. 61-80.
Kelly, D. 2006
Arthurian Verse Romance in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, chapter X of The Arthur of the French. The Arthurian Legend in Medieval French and Occitan Literature, ed. by G. Burgess and K. Pratt, Cardiff, The University of Wales Press, pp. 393-460.
Middleton, R. 2006
The manuscripts, chapter I of The Arthur of the French, ed. by G. Burgess and K. Pratt, Cardiff, The University of Wales Press, pp. 8-92.
Moretti, F. 1994
Opere mondo: saggio sulla forma epica dal Faust a Cent’anni di solitudine, Torino, Einaudi.
Nixon, T. 1993
Romance Collections and the Manuscripts of Chrétien de Troyes, in Les Manuscripts de Chrétien de Troyes, ed. by K. Busby – T. Nixon – A. Stones – L. Walters, Amsterdam, Rodopi, I, pp. 17-25.
Catalogue of Manuscripts, in Les Manuscripts de Chrétien de Troyes, ed. by K. Busby – T. Nixon – A. Stones – L. Walters, Amsterdam, Rodopi, II, pp. 1-85.
Trachsler, R. 1994
Le recueil Paris, BN fr. 12603, in «Cultura Neolatina», 54, pp. 189–211.
Walters, L. 2006
Manuscript Compilations of Verse Romances, c. XI of The Arthur of the French. The Arthurian Legend in Medieval French and Occitan Literature, ed. by G. Burgess and K. Pratt, Cardiff, The University of Wales Press, pp. 461-487.
Walters, L. 1985
Le Rôle du scribe dans l’organisation des manuscrits des romans de Chrétien de Troyes, in «Romania», 106, pp. 303-25.
Walters, L. 1991
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, fonds français, MS 1433: The Creation of a Super Romance, «The Arthurian Yearbook», 1, pp. 3-25.
Walters, L. 2006
The Formation of a Gauvain Cycle in Chantilly MS 472, in «Neophilologus», 78 (1994), pp. 29-43 (then in Gawain: A Casebook, ed. by R. H. Thompson and K Busby, New York-London, Routledge (Arthurian Characters and Themes), p. 157-172.
Walters, L. 1994
Chantilly MS 472 as a Cyclic Work, in Cyclification: The Development of Narrative Cycles in the Chansons de Geste and the Arthurian Romances, ed. by B. Besamusca et al., Amsterdam, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, pp. 135-39.